Read text 1 through quickly and choose a heading for each paragraph from the list below. There are two extra headings which you do not need to use

Text 1

Police functions and organization

( 1 )Police are sometimes called “the long and strong arm of the law”. Police forces are empowered to enforce the law and to protect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force. Police have become an everyday feature of modern society, aiming to provide the public with a safe environment in which to live and work. Police functions include protecting life and property, enforcing criminal law, criminal investigations, regulating traffic, crowd control, and other public safety duties.

( 2 )In most Western police forces, the most significant division is between preventive (uniformed) police and detectives. Preventive Police (also called Uniformed Police, Administrative Police, Order Police, or Patrol) patrol the streets and respond to emergencies and other incidents. They wear uniforms and perform such functions as traffic control, stopping and detaining motorists, and more active crime response and prevention. Preventive police usually make up the bulk of a police service's personnel. Police detectives(called Criminal Investigation Department [CID] in the UK, Investigations Police, Judicial Police, or Criminal Police) are responsible for investigations and detective work. They typically make up roughly 15% - 25% of a police service's personnel. Detectives, or “plainclothes” officers, typically dress in the same way as the general public for purposes of blending in.

( 3 )In contrast to popular conceptions promoted by movies and television, the most important and essential police work is done on patrol in which officers become acquainted with their beats, prevent crime by their presence, respond to crimes in progress, manage crises, and practice their skills. Detectives, by contrast, usually investigate crimes after they have occurred and after patrol officers have responded first to a situation.

( 4 )Specialized preventive and detective groups exist within many law enforcement organizations. They deal with particular types of crime such as traffic law enforcement and crash investigation, homicide, fraud, or computer crime. There are police forces with specialized functions or jurisdiction. In the United States, for example, the federal government has a number of police forces with their own specialized jurisdictions. Some examples are the Federal Protective Service, which patrols and protects government buildings; the Postal Police, which protect postal buildings and vehicles, or the Park Police, which protect national parks. In large countries, police forces also employ specially selected and trained quasi-military units armed with military weapons for dealing with particularly dangerous situations including high-risk arrests, barricaded suspects, armed robbery/assault, hostage taking and terrorism. In the United States, these units are commonly known as SWAT (Special Weapons and Tactics) teams.


( 1 ) police force – полицейские силы, полиция; полицейское подразделение “plainclothes” officer –сыщик; оперативный сотрудник
empower (v) – уполномочивать blend in –смешиваться, сливаться
public order – общественный порядок social order –общественный строй ( 3 ) popular conceptions –общепринятые представления
through (prep) – через, посредством essential(adj) – необходимый; основной
feature (n) – характерная черта, признак aim (v) – стремиться, ставить целью become acquainted withsmth. – знакомиться с чем-л.
safe (adj) – безопасный environment – окружающая обстановка/среда beat(n) - участок работы (например, район, который контролирует полицейский)
investigation (n) – расследование skill(n) – навык, умение
crowd(n)–толпа occur(v)–происходить, случаться
( 2 ) significant (adj) – важный, существенный ( 4 )exist(v) – существовать
division(n) – деление, разделение deal withsmth.–иметь дело с чем-л., заниматься (какими-л. вопросами)
preventive (adj)-предупредительный, превентивный particular(adj) – отдельный; особый, специфический
uniformed police –полиция в форме (патрульная) crash (n) – авария, столкновение (автомобилей)
police detective(n)–полицейский детектив; сотрудник сыскной, уголовной полиции homicide(n) – убийство fraud(n) – мошенничество
respond to(v) – реагировать, отвечать на; emergency (n) –чрезвычайная ситуация; jurisdiction(n) – юрисдикция; сфера полномочий
срочный вызов incident(n)–происшествие vehicle(n) – транспортное средство; автомобиль
traffic control –регулирование уличного weapon(s) –оружие; вооружение
движения dangerous(adj) – опасный
detain(v) – задерживать, арестовывать motorist (n) – автомобилист suspect(n) – подозреваемый armed robbery/assault –вооружённый
make up (v) –составлять, комплектовать разбой/нападение
bulk (n) – основная масса, большая часть hostage taking– захват заложников

Read text 1 through quickly and choose a heading for each paragraph from the list below. There are two extra headings which you do not need to use.

ASpecialized units and jurisdictions.

BThe roles police play in modern society.

CPolice forces under criticism for their use of force.

DPatrol duty or detective work: which is the major law enforcement job?

EPreventive vs. criminal police.

FGlobal policing and other security institutions.